Automobile Enterprise – Wikipedia

The car enterprise comprises a wide variety of agencies and corporations involved within the design, development, manufacturing, advertising and marketing, and selling of motor automobiles.[1] It is one of the international’s largest industries with the aid of sales. It is also the enterprise with the very best spending on Research & Development.[2]

The phrase car comes from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of movement), relating to any form of self-powered car.[rationalization wanted] This term, as proposed via Elmer Sperry[3][want citation to confirm](1860-1930), first came into use close to motors in 1898.[4]History[edit]

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The automotive enterprise began within the 1860s with loads of producers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the arena in total car manufacturing. In 1929, earlier than the Great Depression, the sector had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that point, the U.S. had one car per four.87 individuals.[five] After 1945, the U.S. produced about seventy five percentage of global’s car production. In 1980, the U.S. became overtaken by means of Japan and then have become world leader once more in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly exceeded the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.eight million devices. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production of 10.three million units, at the same time as Japan become in third area with 9.nine million devices.[6] From 1970 (140 fashions) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the wide variety of vehicle fashions within the U.S. has grown exponentially.[7]

Early car manufacturing concerned manual assembly through a human employee. The manner developed from engineers running on a stationary automobile, to a conveyor belt gadget in which the automobile passed thru a couple of stations of greater specialised engineers. Starting within the 1960s, robot equipment was delivered to the method, and these days most motors are produced in large part with automated equipment.[eight]Safety[edit]

Safety is a kingdom that means being blanketed from any chance, hazard, damage, or motive of damage. In the car industry, safety manner that users, operators, or manufacturers do not face any risk or chance coming from the motor car or its spare parts. Safety for the cars themselves means that there is no risk of harm.

Safety within the automotive industry is in particular critical and therefore distinctly regulated. Automobiles and other motor cars have to follow a certain wide variety of guidelines, whether nearby or international, which will be widely wide-spread in the marketplace. The fashionable ISO 26262, is taken into consideration one of the pleasant practice frameworks for attaining car practical safety.[nine]

In case of protection issues, hazard, product illness or defective technique in the course of the manufacturing of the motor car, the maker can request to go back either a batch or the whole manufacturing run. This process is referred to as product consider. Product recollects occur in every enterprise and can be production-related or stem from raw fabric.

Product and operation tests and inspections at special degrees of the cost chain are made to keep away from those product recalls through ensuring give up-consumer safety and safety and compliance with the automotive enterprise necessities. However, the automotive industry remains mainly concerned approximately product recollects, which motive giant economic results.Economy[edit]

In 2007, there were approximately 806 million vehicles and mild trucks on the street, ingesting over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel gas yearly.[10] The car is a primary mode of transportation for many evolved economies. The Detroit department of Boston Consulting Group anticipated that, through 2014, one-0.33 of world demand could be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, inside the developed international locations, the automobile enterprise has slowed.[eleven] It is also predicted that this trend will continue, mainly as the younger generations of people (in fairly urbanized international locations) now not need to personal a car anymore, and like other modes of transport.[12] Other potentially effective car markets are Iran and Indonesia.[thirteen]Emerging car markets already buy extra cars than hooked up markets.

According to a J.D. Power examine, rising markets accounted for fifty one percentage of the worldwide light-car sales in 2010. The observe, done in 2010 anticipated this trend to boost up.[14][15] However, greater current reports (2012) showed the other; specifically that the car industry became slowing down even in BRIC countries.[eleven] In the US, car sales peaked in 2000, at 17.eight million units.[sixteen]

In July 2021, the European Commission launched its “Fit for fifty five” law package,[17] which contains crucial guidelines for the destiny of the automotive enterprise; all new vehicles at the European market must be zero-emission cars from 2035.[18]

The governments of 24 evolved international locations and a collection of main automobile manufacturers including GM, Ford, Volvo, BYD Auto, Jaguar Land Rover and Mercedes-Benz dedicated to “work towards all income of new vehicles and vans being 0 emission globally via 2040, and via no later than 2035 in main markets”.[19][20] Major automobile manufacturing countries like the US, Germany, China, Japan and South Korea, as well as Volkswagen, Toyota, Peugeot, Honda, Nissan and Hyundai, did no longer pledge.[21]World motor car manufacturing[edit]

Production extent (one thousand cars)

Nineteen Seventies: Oil disaster and tighter safety and emission regulation.

Nineteen Nineties: production began in NICs

2000s: upward push of China as a pinnacle manufacturer

Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010

to 1950: USA had produced greater than 80% of motor motors.[23]

1950s: UK, Germany and France restarted manufacturing.

1960s: Japan began manufacturing and improved quantity thru the 1980s.US, Japan, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom produced about eighty% of motor vehicles thru the 1980s.

1990s: South Korea became a extent producer. In 2004, Korea have become No. five passing France.

2000s: China accelerated its production considerably, and became the world’s largest producing us of a in 2009 .

2010s: India overtakes Korea, Canada, Spain to become fifth largest car manufacturer.

2013: The proportion of China (25.four%), India, Korea,Brazil and Mexico rose to forty three%, while the proportion of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UKfell to 34%.

2018: India overtakes Germany to become 4th largest car manufacturer.

World motor manufacturing (1997-2016)By yr[edit]YearProductionChangeSource199754,434,000—[24]199852,987,000 2.7%[24]199956,258,892 6.2%[25]200058,374,162 three.8%[26]200156,304,925 3.5%[27]200258,994,318 four.eight%[28]200360,663,225 2.eight%[29]200464,496,220 6.3%[30]200566,482,439 3.1%[31]200669,222,975 four.1%[32]200773,266,061 5.eight%[33]200870,520,493 3.7%[34]200961,791,868 12.four%[35]201077,857,705[36]201179,989,155 3.1%[37]201284,141,209 five.three%[38]201387,300,115 three.7%[39]201489,747,430 2.6%[forty]201590,086,346 zero.4%[41]201694,976,569 four.5%[42]201797,302,534 2.36%[43]201895,634,593 1.seventy one%[forty four]201991,786,861 five.2%[45]202077,621,582 16%[46]

from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity

Global car import and export in 2011By us of a[edit]

The OICA counts over 50 countries which collect, manufacture or disseminate motors. Of that parent, handiest 14 nations (boldfaced within the list below) presently possess the functionality to design unique manufacturing vehicles from the floor up.[48][49]Top 20 motor car producing international locations (2018)CountryMotor vehicle production (units)China

“Production Statistics”. OICA.By producer[edit]

These have been the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, in keeping with OICA.[47]RankGroupCountryVehicles1ToyotaJapan10,466,0512Volkswagen GroupGermany10,382,3343HyundaiSouth Korea7,218,3914General MotorsUnited States6,856,8805FordUnited States6,386,8186NissanJapan5,769,2777HondaJapan5,236,8428Fiat Chrysler AutomobilesaItaly/United States4,six hundred,8479RenaultFrance4,153,58910PSA GroupaFrance3,649,74211SuzukiJapan3,302,33612SAICChina2,866,91313DaimlerGermany2,549,14214BMWGermany2,505,74115GeelyChina1,950,382Other rankings[edit]